Sebastião Salgado (b. 1944, Aimorés, Minas Gerais, Brazil) is a Brazilian photographer who lives in Paris. Although he was trained as an economist (completing his doctoral coursework at the University of Paris), Salgado gave up that career in 1973 to focus on taking photographs, first for news agencies, then for himself on long-term documentary projects. Many of his photographs focus on impoverished parts of the world and marginalized people. (Pleae take a moment to read a brief inteview with Salgado about the Migrations project.)
Salgado has published several books of his photographs, including Migrations (on which this site is based), Workers, The Children, An Uncertain Grace, Terra: Struggle of the Landless, Sahel: The End of the Road, and others. He has been awarded prizes for his work in the United States, Brazil, France, Sweden, Spain, Holland, Germany, and many other countries. Eduardo Galeano has called Salgado "the Picasso of photography." In November 2005, Salgado visited The Leonardo in Salt Lake City, Utah, where some of us saw his exhibition and/or presentation. Although he has been primarily a photographer of people, he is currently at work on "Genesis," a nearly decade-long project to photograph the unspoiled places of the world.
We are eighteen students at Brigham Young University in English 115, section 34, winter semester 2006.
And fifteen more in English 150H, section 20, winter semester 2008.
Our professor is Dr. Patrick Madden. Along with the basics of rhetoric and writing, we studied the photographs of Sebastião Salgado's Migrations project, reading articles on many parts of the world that we hadn't studied before. For more information on us individually, see our group pages.
This Web site uses copyrighted materials: photographs from Sebastião Salgado's Migrations mostly, but also images and short quotations from a variety of other sources. The "fair use" of copyrighted materials is covered by the United States Code Title 17 Section 107, which is reproduced below:
Sec. 107 of the United States Code. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use
The fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:
- the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
- the nature of the copyrighted work;
- the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
- the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.
How this site stacks up:
- This Web site is the result of a class project by Brigham Young University freshmen. Its purpose is educational and it is nonprofit.
- The copyrighted work (in the case of Migrations) is a collection of photographs.
- This site uses only eight photographs from Salgado's work. MIgrations includes over 400 photographs. That works out to be about 2% of the book reproduced here.
- Although it is hard to predict such things, it is our opinion that this site can only increase awareness of global problems and organizations that are working towards solutions; it may also increase interest in and sales of Sebastião Salgado's books.
In summary, this Web site fits the description of "Fair Use" given by the U.S. Code in every way. What's more, the intention of this site is to honor and analyze Sebastião Salgado's photography as a means of understanding our world better and making our writing better.
For more on United States copyright laws, and to see where the above text comes from, see the Cornell Law School's Legal Information Institute Web page at http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/.
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